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BaltSeaPlan

Newsletter #3

Documentation of the
BaltSeaPlan External Event - Stockholm

"Maritime Spatial Planning for a Sustainable Management of the Sea"
Stockholm, Sweden, 27th October 2010

Welcome

On behalf of one of the host partners, the Swedish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), Cecilia Lindblad opened the Stockholm External Event. On behalf of the lead partner (BSH) Dr. Nico Nolte welcomed the participants.



Please follow the attached links for Agenda and Participant List

1 - MSP - The Planning System and Strategies Under Change

The European Perspective

Jan Ekebom, DG Mare 
“Thoughts, Ideas, Initiatives of the European Commission to promote an integrated spatial development of European Seas”

The European Commission (EC) has identified Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) as a key tool of the Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP), and is actively working on MSP promotion since 2008. Also other countries, such as the USA, Australia and China see IMP and MSP as essential tools to the integrated management of the sea.

In the presentation that follows attached Jan Ekebom:
  • reflects on the question “What kind of Maritime Policy do we desire?”
  • presents the MSP actions of the European Commission since 2008 such as the MSP Roadmap, the definition of MSP principles (overarching principle - ecosystem approach), EU studies in legal aspects and Economic Benefits of MSP
  • presents the EU’s Marine Data and Knowledge activities such as the European Atlas of the Sea and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET)
  • explains the links between the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and MSP
  • presents the research launched in September by DG Research “ The Ocean of Tomorrow 2011”
  • presents the future initiatives of the EC and next steps

North Sea Activities – The experience from the Netherlands

Titia Kalker, Rijkswaterstaat, NL - “New developments in the North Sea”

In the Netherlands Maritime Spatial Planning is already a reality. After experiencing various approaches of management of the sea (sectoral approaches, management plans, etc.) and in consequence of the growing pressures especially caused by wind power demands on the sea the Netherlands initiated a Maritime Spatial Planning procedure.
From Mare Liberum -------------------------------------> to MSP
In this conference, Titia Kalker presented the approach taken to develop the Spatial Plan for the Dutch EEZ.
Sustainable development, where the interest of the people, planet and profit are balanced, is the goal for the Maritime Spatial Plan. During the drafting of this plan the mutual gain approach was carried out with regard to the stakeholders. The draft team identified existing spatial pressures, possible conflicts, ambitions and interests, combined maps leading to the identification of zones were agreement between different interests exist (80%) and zones where agreement does not exist (20%), investigated alternatives and their benefits/disadvantages to each user group and produced a draft plan.
The Dutch Cabinet has already agreed on this draft and a final approval is expected from the new elected parliament.
Please follow the link to the presentation for more details on the:
  • Development of MSP in the Netherlands
  • “Making of “ the spatial plan for the Dutch EEZ
  • Future developments of MSP in the Netherlands
  • Cross border cooperation in MSP
  • Lessons learned in the MSP Process

The Balance Initiative – Results & Outlook

Johnny Reker, Danish Spatial and Environmental Planning Agency

BALANCE was a BSR INTERREG IIIB (2005-2007) project that aimed at the development of tools supporting informed management of the Baltic Sea and long-term sustainable use of its resources. Its main activities were: the harmonisation of information, the mapping of the marine environment, a holistic assessment of the Baltic Sea network of Marine Protected Areas, MSP and tools that support MSP.

In his presentation Johnny Reker, focused on the new type of marine landscape maps produced in the project, which are now available via Helcom GIS service. The presentation showed the broad scale habitat map for the Baltic Sea, results of combination of information (e.g. benthic landscapes and oxygen depletion), analysis of cumulative effects, pressure index map illustrating cumulative pressures, impact index maps and rankings of pressure.

As a summary Johnny Reker emphasised the importance of a uniform approach to data collection, harmonisation and classification, of the coherent data and human activities information, and of the identification of scientific principles and methodologies for assessing for instance multiple pressures and ecosystem carrying capacity.

BaltSeaPlan – Turning Maritime Planning into Reality Throughout the Baltic Sea

Nico Nolte, BSH, BaltSeaPlan Lead Partner
“What can be expected from BaltSeaPlan?

BaltSeaPlan is a BSR INTERREG IVB project, the main objective of which is to develop, introduce and implement Maritime Spatial Planning throughout the Baltic Sea Region in a coherent manner.

In his presentation Nico Nolte explained the importance of Maritime Spatial Planning, presented the structure and activities of the BaltSeaPlan Project. He highlighted the activities in pilot project areas that will lead to draft planning maps. The activity “Common Spatial Vision to the Baltic Sea 2030”, that is at the moment under preparation, was explained in a more detailed form.

2 - BaltSeaPlan & Interim Results Interesting for Sweden

The Swedish Planning System under change

Folke Larsson, Government Inquiry on Establishment of a Swedish Marine & Water Environment Agency, SE
“Establishment of a Swedish Marine and Water Environment Agency”

In Sweden, a government inquiry for the establishment of a Swedish Marine and Water Environment Agency was started. One of the objectives of this new agency will be the establishment of a marine spatial planning system.

Folke Larsson’s presentation shows the objectives behind this new agency, its scope, in which area this agency will cooperate with SEPA, which areas this agency will not deal with and the advantages of the creation of such an agency.

Mikael Cullberg, Government Inquiry on MSP, SE
“Introducing Maritime Spatial Planning in Sweden”
(presentation given by Andreas Morf due to unavailability of Mikael Cullberg)

The Swedish government started an Inquiry on the introduction of Marine Spatial Planning in Sweden.

Until now the planning of the territorial sea was under the responsibility of the municipalities in Sweden. With the creation of a new agency responsible for MSP it is envisaged that the responsibility of planning beyond one nautical mile from the baseline - including the EEZ - should be transferred to the national level. It is proposed that one MSP will be drafted to each sea area: Skagerrak/Kattegat, Baltic Sea (main Basin) and Bothnic Sea and Bay. The process will be ecosystem-based. The new Agency will take a coordination role and all other agencies concerned should work together. The MSP process will have 6 stages: programming, planning, examination, decision, implementation and follow-up.

National Strategies for Maritime Areas, Targets and Recommendations

Jacek Zaucha, Maritime Institute of Gdansk, PL
MSP driving forces in SE neighbouring countries with focus in Poland

In the context of the Baltic Sea Plan (working package 3 Maritime Policy), Maritme Institute from Gdańsk has guided the work on the assessment of the existing policies and trends within each country as such that affect the coast and the sea space development/use.

The aim of this assessment was: identify aims, objectives and targets that have already been set out for the sea and coast and which are important for planners; provide a base to produce proposals for national integrated
maritime policies taking into account land-sea use integration, institutional integration, economic, social and ecological issues and inform the development of a vision for the Baltic Sea.

Jacek Zaucha presented an overview of the documents screened by the project partners . On that basis he suggested the list of the most influential policies for the Baltic Sea development. More in depth analysis were conducted by the project partners on the policies influencing MSP and, driving forces for sea space development in four BSR countries (Lithuania, Germany, Latvia and Poland), spatial conflicts and need for crossborder cooperation in MSP. As the result a draft recommendations (based on Polish case) were suggested.

Sten Jerdenius, Ministry of the Environment, SE - The Swedish Perspective

The Ad hoc licensing system, the lack of a coherent picture of interests and protection needs, the fragmented and very limited municipal planning of the sea, the lack of planning regimes in the EEZ, the need for improvement of the severe environmental situation and the growth of competing uses are the challenges for the management of the sea in Sweden.

The creation of a new marine and water authority aims at helping to introduce a coherent marine policy, that is cross-sectoral, in line with the EU policy, where sea/coastal resources are used so that ecosystems are preserved/ restored and economic activities are developed to increase Sweden’s competitiveness. This policy should take into account the country wind-energy goals and environmental quality objectives and the planning legislation and environmental code.

To know more about Swedish MSP please download the attached presentation.

BaltSeaPlan - Pilot Projects

Andrzej Cieślak, Maritime Office of Gdynia, PL - Pilot 1 – Offshore Planning at the Middle Bank

The Middle Bank Pilot project is one of the envisaged transnational pilot maritime spatial plans which is developed in the context of the BaltSeaPlan project. The work is being developed between the Polish partners Maritime Office of Gdynia and Maritime Institute of Gdansk and the Swedish Partners Royal Institute of Technology and Swedish Environmental Agency. The planning process follows the 9 steps of Maritime Spatial Planning defined as a common approach to pilot projects by BaltSeaPlan (see picture in presentation). At the moment the plan is being drafted (step 7). This process should be finished in February 2011.

The different institutional situations between the two countries, Poland with MSP responsibilities well defined and Sweden waiting for the creation of an agency that takes these responsibilities, is a challenge to the project at the moment of publishing a draft plan. The Middle Bank team will have to agree during the next months on the form of publication of the Plan.

In the presentation of Andrzej Cieślak you can find more information, maps and findings of this pilot project.

Bettina Käppeler, BSH, DE - Pilot 2 – Pomeranian Bight / Arkona Basin

The Pomeranian Bight / Arkona Basin Pilot Project is the second transnational pilot MSP of BaltSeaPlan, with four different countries represented: Denmark, Germany, Poland and Sweden.

In the beginning of the process there have been no comprehensive MSP in effect, except for Germany (territorial waters: Ministry of Transport, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, EEZ: BSH) and for the MSP Gdansk Bay in inland waters in Poland (outside of the pilot project area).

The pilot aims at developing the MSP process up to step 7 (drafting a plan), the result of which could serve as proposal for future implementation procedures in participating countries. At the moment activities include refining the stocktake and the group will start to produce a draft plan that should be finished in May 2011.

The overarching planning principles are: working towards sustainability, minimisation of conflicts between human uses as well as between human uses and the natural environment and application of different planning approaches with regard to different planning issues.

More specifically the project aims at ensuring the effective protection of valuable nature conservation sites, contributing to the achievement of good water quality and ensuring safe and clean shipping / transport as well as port development, identifying appropriate infrastructure corridors, finding suitable areas and ensuring favourable conditions for renewable energy (offshore wind farms).

In the presentation of Bettina Käppeler find also more information, stocktaking, maps and details on the planning principles.

3 - MSP: Cross-Baltic Collaboration of Sweden Beyond the BaltSeaPlan

Collaboration across the Bothnian Bay

Johnny Berglund, County Administrative Board of Västerbotten

The Project ULTRA and the project Intersik both of the Botnia-Atlantica Program for cross border cooperation are valuable examples for MSP data collection/modelling of sea floors and habitats.
The project ULTRA was based on the realisation that the knowledge of the underwater nature is very limited and that without the basic information on the seafloor it is impossible to plan the sea. Furthermore the existing methods of collecting this information (ship echo-sounding) are ineffective in shallow waters.
The main goal of the project is to extract additional seafloor information (substrate and vegetation) using the airborne LIDAR system that until then was only used to generate depth information (bathymetry). This method was tested in the Bothnia Bay with the following results:
  • The LIDAR method is very fast (20km2 per hour) and provides very good resolutions (2X2 meter) compared to 10km2 per summer with 100X100m resolution with underwater survey.
  • LIDAR inventory yields accurate depths as well as a rough but reliable classification of the natural values on the seafloor but only down to 2,5 – 3 Secchi-depth (measure of the visibility of the waters. in the Baltic Sea about 12-18 metres)
  • A reliable correlation of the LIDAR signal to seafloor geology and vegetation requires ground- truthing, but the classification can then be extended to very large areas.
The project Intersik is about habitat modelling for white fish and can be taken as an example on how to model fish habitats for MSP purposes.
Please see presentation of Johnny Berglund for more details on these 2 projects.

Municipal planning and International Collaboration in the South Baltic

Mattias Müller, Trelleborg municipality

The overarching purpose of the INTERREG IIIB  BSR – Baltic Master Project (2005-2007) was to deal with the growing risks related to increased oil transportation. In this presentation, Mattias Müller presented the Case Study Trelleborg, in which the entire coastline in the municipality and the area of sea until the outer limit of the EEZ represent a pilot area for analyses relating to integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and method development.

Apart from the structure of the project, this presentation explains the general approach to sustainability and integration that was used, the methodology and results.

The resulting recommended sustainable solutions on the future problems and challenges brought by the analyses were also presented, e.g. converting excess algae in the sea due to eutrophication, into fossil free energy via digestion to biogas and making use of the residuals as fertilizers thus creating a double recycling system and at the same time counteract the eutrophication with economic favorable methods.

Please, see the attached presentation for more details on the project. The project also produced a publication summarizing this case study which can be downloaded on the webpage together with thematic reports.

4 - MSP: Stakeholder Involvement

The Latvian Case

Anda Ruskule, BEF Latvia

One of the main activities of the BaltSeaPlan pilot projects is stakeholder involvement. The Pilot Project Latvia Sea has developed an exemplary work in this area that was presented in this conference by Anda Ruskule.

The approach used is based on a variety of meetings with the recently created co-ordination group for MSP (composed by the competent national and regional authorities with responsibilities in the area), national and local stakeholder events, thematic meetings with particular stakeholder groups, joint stakeholder events specific to the pilot area and a survey of the inhabitants and visitors of Kurzeme coast. A seminar targetting competent authorities and spatial planners, and a final joint stakeholder event to discuss the draft plan will also be organised (graph describes this approach).
Some observation about the process until now:
  • Little experience in cross-sectoral discussions and searching for win-win solutions or compromises
  • “Old users “ like fisherman, ports are less open to negotiation
  • Conflicts exist not only between the sectors but also within the sectors
  • Case by case solutions are more accepted
  • The advantages of MSP are still not clear for the stakeholders
  • Discussion among stakeholder groups using actual spatial information of the sea uses help to solve or highlight some conflicts
Please download Anda Ruskule’s presentation in order to know more about these events and about the conflicts identified during the process.

Participation and Ecosystem Management in Sweden: Breakthroughs & Challenges

Andrea Morf, Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, SE

In Sweden, marine management is performed on 3 levels: national, regional, and municipal with informal regulation among local users as a complement. The administrative system is centralised and sectoral, centralist and based on organised lobbies. Most responsibility for natural resource management is with national sector authorities (fisheries, marine transport, energy production, conservation) and the County Administrative boards, a regional agency of the national state.

Since the 1960s in most of Europe the public participation in planning processes has evolved from informing affected parties to consulting a broader public and cooperating on problems. Also Sweden has experienced such a change of paradigm. Here, spatial planning has been a driving force for broader participation and integration across the water-land boundary.
According to the Planning and Building Act, adopted 1987, municipalities and their regional collaboration organs are responsible for cross sector spatial coordination within territorial waters coupled with possibilities for broad stakeholder participation. Further possibilities for broad participation are EIA hearings according to the Environmental Code (2000). Since the late 1990s/early 2000s a number of pilot projects with collaborative focus have been conducted such as co-management of local fisheries and collaboration plans for conservation. A spatial planning of the EEZ with including a requirement for broad participation is expected to be enacted by 2012 (see presentation by Michael Cullberg).

Based on legal requirements, there is a standard package for participation including exhibitions of draft plans in public places and the possibility to react by letters, public meetings, and participation reports on what was said and what was included/not included and why. However, if there are enough resources, the municipalities often enhance participation for important plans and issues. Examples include on-site tours and discussion, study circles, survey activities, discussion groups. Not the least local NGOs have been included both through activities of their own and project-based collaboration.

One year ago, Sweden has inaugurated its first marine national park comprising the Koster-Väderö fjord in the municipalities of Strömstad and Tanum. The road towards the park has been long, curvy, and bumpy. Ideas presented more than 30 years ago met little enthusiasm with locals and fishermen. Not the least collaboration between authorities, researchers, gear developers and local fishermen was an important stepping stone in the process. In the end, top-down management has met bottom-up initiative; conservation is no more a "dead hand" but provides potential for rural development through sustainable tourism. Local users are not merely tolerated but an important part in the park's management structure. The park’s objectives also include educational and sustainable use-goals. The process is a highly interesting case of integrative management of coastal conflicts and institutional innovation in conservation. The inclusion of a rural development perspective, the development of multiple forms of collaboration over years, and active individuals on various levels have been important drivers.

See presentation by Andrea Morf for more details on this case study such methods used and success factors and her general conclusions with regard to challenges, opportunities and important questions of participation.
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This project is part-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund)
Baltic Sea Region